صفحه 1


Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs)

Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) in an ATC Unit are a specific set of procedures that specify how the unit’s controllers’ ATC responsibilities are to be co-ordinated. 

Within ATM, many types of procedure are rigidly applied, especially in regard to communication.

However, with other types of procedure modification may be permitted to suit individual situations and personalities. Nevertheless, it should be remembered that standard procedures are based on long years of experience; if there is intent to modify an existing procedure, careful consideration must be given to ensure that unforeseen consequences do not result.

In Flight Operations, strict procedures are defined covering every aspect of flight deck activity and embracing normal, abnormal and emergency situations. This wide range of procedures and checklists is essential because of the large number of situations which can arise and the critical nature of some of these situations. Although these procedures are written down in checklists and quick reference handbooks, pilots must be able to perform certain vital actions from memory, referring to the written procedure later to confirm that correct action has been taken.

Flight Operations procedures have been defined after much research in order to ensure the most successful outcome from all reasonably likely circumstances. They are not discretionary and must be followed precisely. Failure to follow established procedures has been found to be a causal factor in many aircraft accidents and serious incidents.

Types of SOP

  • SOPs published by an aircraft manufacturer are designed to:
    • Reflect the manufacturer’s flight deck design philosophy and operating philosophy;
    • Promote optimum use of aircraft design features; and,
    • Apply to a broad range of company operations and environments.

An aircraft manufacturer’s SOPs can be adopted by a flying organisation without amendment, but are often used to develop customised company SOPs.

  • SOPs published within ATC Units specify how ATCOs responsibilities are to be co-ordinated.


Deviations from SOPs occur for a variety of reasons; intentional deviations and inadvertent deviations from SOPs have been identified as causal factors in many aircraft accidents and incidents.

Crew Resource Management (CRM) and Team Resource Management (TRM) are not effective without adherence to SOPs, because SOPs provide a standard reference for the ATC team and for the crew’s tasks on the flight deck. SOPs are effective only if they are clear and concise.

SOPs are the result of a careful process, often conducted over a period of many years, which considers all likely outcomes; deviation from a standard procedure may lead to an unexpected and unsafe outcome.

Typical Scenarios

  • An aircraft on approach to land is not stabilised due to high approach speed. SOPs require the aircraft to go-around in the event of an unstabilised approach but the pilot continues the approach in his desire to complete the schedule on time, risking collision with the ground (CFIT) and severe aircraft damage.
  • An ATCO re-clears a climbing or descending aircraft to an intermediate level when the flight is already very close to that level; the pilot is unable to prevent the aircraft from overshooting the new cleared level.
  • A pilot or ATCO does not use standard phraseology in a message, resulting in the message being misunderstood by the recipient.

Contributory Factors

  • Inadequate knowledge or failure to understand a procedure (e.g., wording or phrasing was not clear, or the procedure was perceived as inappropriate);
  • Insufficient emphasis during training on adherence to SOPs;
  • Inadequate vigilance (e.g. fatigue);
  • Interruptions and distractions;
  • Task saturation;
  • Incorrect management of priorities;
  • Reduced attention (tunnel vision) in abnormal conditions or high-workload conditions;
  • Inadequate CRM or TRM (e.g., inadequate crew co-ordination, cross-check and backup);
  • Company/Unit policies (e.g., schedules, costs, optimisation of traffic);
  • Other policies (e.g. duty time);
  • Desire to get the job done;
  • Complacency and overconfidence.


Initial training provides the opportunity to establish the disciplined use of SOPs, and recurrent training offers the opportunity to reinforce that behaviour.

Management at all levels must insist on the proper use of SOPs



Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM)

A Flight Manual is a manual, associated with the Certificate of Airworthiness, containing limitations within which the aircraft is to be considered airworthy, and instructions and information necessary to the flight crew members for the safe operation of the aircraft. (ICAO Annex 6)


An aeroplane flight manual (AFM) is a document produced by the aircraft manufacturer containing detailed information on the operation of the aircraft.

The AFM details the recommended aircraft operating technique for normal, abnormal and emergency operation together with the Aircraft Performance that should be achieved when the aircraft is operated in accordance with these procedures.

The AFM is a vital part of the aircraft inventory and must be carried on all flights unless the National Airworthiness Authority (NAA) of the aircraft operator has formally accepted that the Operations Manual of the aircraft operator replicates all relevant AFM information for an aircraft. 

The AFM is specific to each aircraft and reflects the precise equipment and modification state of that aircraft.

 In practice, NAA dispensation not to carry the AFM on board an aircraft is commonly obtained by commercial aircraft operators.

Prompt Amendment of the AFM is an important function of an aircraft operator’s flight operations department and must be carefully controlled.

 The control process must also ensure that any documents dependent upon AFM content such as the Operations Manual, flight deck copies of the EAC and/or QRH) and crew training materials are also updated following the publication of any amendment.


Operation Manual

در این پست قصد دارم در مورد OM مطالبی را ارئه نمایم : آنچه در این موضوع می خوانید برگرفته از سایت skybrary  می باشد.


An Operations Manual should contain

 procedures, instructions and guidance for use by operational personnel in the execution of their duties. (ICAO Annex 6: Operation of Aircraft)

OM باید شامل فرایند ها و دستورالعمل ها و راهنمایی ها برای استفاده پرسنل عملیات در دسترس باشد. (ایکائو انکس ششم : عملیات هواپیما)

The Operations Manual may contain some or all of the information contained in the AFM, but it also contains much other information regarding the way in which flights are to be conducted.

OM ممکن است بخشی یا تمام اطلاعات موجود در AFM را در بر بگیرد. اما می توان گفت که این داکیومنت شامل موارد زیاد دیگری نیز می باشد که جهت انجام یک پرواز به آن نیاز هست.

Contents of an Operations Manual

محتوای OM

An Operations Manual, which may be issued in separate parts corresponding to specific aspects of operations, … shall contain at least the following: (ICAO Annex 6 Appendix 2)

شایان ذکر است که OM  دارای بخش های مختلفی (parts) می باشد که هر یک مربوط به یک بعد از عملیات پرواز می باشد و حداقل باید شامل موارد زیر باشد:

۱٫ Operations administration and supervision (نظارت و مدیریت )۱٫۱ Instructions outlining(تعریف کردن) the responsibilities of operations personnel pertaining to the conduct of flight operations.دستورالعملی که مسئولیت و وظیفه هر یک از اعضای دخیل در عملیات پرواز را مشخص می نماید.۱٫۲ Checklist of emergency and safety equipment and instructions for its use.چکلیست مورد استفاده در مواقع اضطراری و مربوط به تجهیزات ایمنی و دستورالعمل بکارگیری آن۱٫۳ The minimum equipment list for the aeroplane types operated and specific operations authorized, including any requirements relating to operations in RNP (Required Navigation Performance) airspace.فهرست MEL مربوط به هواپیمای خاص و عملیات های خاصی که آن تایپ از پرنده می تواند انجام دهد و …۱٫۴ Safety precautions during refuelling with passengers on board.ملاحظات ایمنی مربوط به هنگام سوختگیری در حالتی که مسافران سوار هستند.

۲٫ Accident prevention and flight safety programme Details of the accident prevention and flight safety programme provided … including a statement of safety policy and the responsibility of personnel.

۲- جطئیات مربوط به جلوگیزی از حوادث و برنامه ایمنی پرواز و …

۳٫ Personnel training

۳- اموزش پرسنل۳٫۱ Details of the flight crew training programme and requirements.3.2 Details of the cabin crew duties training programme …

۴٫ Fatigue and flight time limitations Rules limiting the flight time and flight duty periods and providing for adequate rest periods for flight crew members and cabin crew …

۴- ملاحظات مربوط به محدودیت های زمان شیفت و استراحت

۵٫ Flight operations

۵- عملیات پرواز۵٫۱ The flight crew for each type of operation including the designation of the succession of command.5.2 The in-flight and the emergency duties assigned to each crew member.5.3 Specific instructions for the computation of the quantities of fuel and oil to be carried, having regard to all circumstances of the operation including the possibility of the failure of one or more powerplants while en route.ملاحظات مربوط به میزان سوختی که باید بارگذاری شود و موارد مربوط به محاسبات مصرف میزان سوخت در صورتی که یکی از موتور ها  از کار بیافتد.۵٫۴ The conditions under which oxygen shall be used and the amount of oxygen determined …موارد مربوط به شرایطی که در آن اکسیژن باید مورد استفاده قرار بگیرد و نیز محاسبات مربوط به میزان مصرف اکسیژن.۵٫۵ Instructions for mass and balance control.دستورالعمل مربوط به کنترل بار و تعادل بار در بدنه هواپیما 5.6 Instructions for the conduct and control of ground de-icing/anti-icing operations.فرایند مربوط به ضد یخ  پاشی و یخ زایی۵٫۷ The specifications for the operational flight plan.موارد مربوط به برنامه  عملیات پرواز۵٫۸ The normal, abnormal and emergency procedures to be used by the flight crew, the checklists relating thereto and aircraft systems information …موارد مربوط به عملکرد در شرایط عادی و غیر عادی و اضطراری … چکلیست مربوطه و اطلاعات مربوط به سیستم های هواپیما۵٫۹ Standard operating procedures (SOP) for each phase of flight.فرایند استاندارد عملیات (SOP) برای هر فاز از پرواز۵٫۱۰ Instructions on the use of normal checklists and the timing of their use.دستورالعمل مربوط به چکلیست مورد استفاده در شرایط عادی و زمان مربوط به آن۵٫۱۱ Emergency evacuation procedures.فرآیند تخلیه اضطراری۵٫۱۲ Departure contingencyاحتمالی procedures.فرایند Departure  احتمالی۵٫۱۳ Instructions on the maintenance of altitude awareness and the use of automated or flight crew altitude call out.؟؟؟۵٫۱۴ Instructions on the use of autopilots and autothrottles in IMC.دستورالعمل مربوط به استفاده از اتوپایلوت و …۵٫۱۵ Instructions on the clarification and acceptance of ATC clearances, particularly where terrain clearance is involved.دستورالعمل مربوط به پذیرش اجازه از کنترلر مراقب پرواز ، بویژه در جایی که اجازه عدم وجود موانع الزامی است.۵٫۱۶ Departure and approach briefings.موارد مربوط به   Departure and approach5.17 Route and destination familiarization.آشنایی با مسیر و مقصد۵٫۱۸ Stabilized approach procedure.فرآیند اپروچ پایدار۵٫۱۹ Limitation on high rates of descent near the surface.محدودیت های مربوط به نرخ بالای کاهش ارتفاع 5.20 Conditions required to commence or to continue an instrument approach.؟؟؟۵٫۲۱ Instructions for the conduct of precision and nonprecision instrument approach procedures.دستورالعمل مربوط به  فرایند اپروچ دقیق و غیر دقیق۵٫۲۲ Allocation of flight crew duties and procedures for the management of crew workload during night and IMC instrument approach and landing operations.مشخص۵٫۲۳ Instructions and training requirements for the avoidance of controlled flight into terrain and policy for the use of the ground proximity warning system (GPWS).فرآیند مربوط به استفاده از GPWS5.24 Information and instructions relating to the interception of civil aircraft …فرآیند مربوط به رهگیری هواپیماهای غیر نظامی۵٫۲۵ Information relating to exposure to solar cosmic radiation.موارد مربوط به در معرض تابش های کیهانی بودن و …

۶٫ Aeroplane performance Operating instructions and information on climb performance with all engines operating, if provided …


۷٫ Route guides and charts

راهنمای مسیر ها و چارت ها

 A route guide to ensure that the flight crew will have, for each flight, information relating to communication facilities, navigation aids, aerodromes, and such other information as the operator may deem necessary for the proper conduct of flight operations.

۸٫ Minimum flight altitudes

حداقل ارتفاع پروازی 8.1 The method for determining minimum flight altitudes.8.2 The minimum flight altitudes for each route to be flown.توجه : حداقل ارتفاع پروازی در هر مسیر متفاوت می باشد.

۹٫ Aerodrome operating minima

حداقا های  عملیاتی مربوط به یک فرودگاه۹٫۱ The methods for determining aerodrome operating minima.روشهایی که توسط آن بتوان حداقل های عملیاتی یک فرودگاه را تعیین نمود.۹٫۲ Aerodrome operating minima for each of the aerodromes that are likely to be used as aerodromes of intended landing or as alternate aerodromes.
9.3 The increase of aerodrome operating minima in case of degradation of approach or aerodrome facilities.

۱۰٫ Search and rescue

۱۰ – جست و جو و نجات۱۰٫۱ The ground-air visual signal code for use by survivors …سیگنال زمان به هوا که توسط تیم جست و جو دریافت می گردد۱۰٫۲ Procedures … for pilots-in-command observing an accident.فرایند مربوط به خلبانی که حادثه ای را مشاهده می کند.

۱۱٫ Dangerous goods Information and instructions on the carriage of Dangerous Goods, including action to be taken in the event of an emergency.

۱۱- کالاهای خطرناک

دستورالعمل ها و فرآیند مربوط به حمل کالاهای خطرناک و …

۱۲٫ Navigation

۱۲- ناوبری۱۲٫۱ A list of the navigational equipment to be carried including any requirements relating to operations in RNP airspace.لیست تجهیزان ناوبری که نصب و قابل استفاده می باشد …۱۲٫۲ Where relevant to the operations, the long-range navigation procedures to be used.موارد مربوط به ناوبری در مسیر های طولانی

۱۳٫ Communications The circumstances in which a radio listening watch is to be maintained.

۱۳- ارتباطات 

۱۴٫ Security

۱۴- حراست 14.1 Security instructions and guidance.دستورالعمل های مربوط به حراست۱۴٫۲ The search procedure checklist provided …دستورالعمل جستو جوی بدنی مسافران و …

۱۵٫ Human Factors Information on the operators’ training programme for the development of knowledge and skills related to human performance.

۱۵ – عوامل انسانی:

EU-OPS Requirements

The structure and content of the Operations Manual is detailed in EU-OPS 1.1045 and the referenced Appendix. In essence, the Operations Manual comprises four parts:

OM شامل چهار قسمت می باشد :

  • Part A. General/Basic. This part comprises all non type-related operational policies, instructions and procedures needed for a safe operation.

بخش اول (A) : این بخش مربوط به تمام مواردی است که به تایپ پرنده مربوط نمی باشد. دستورالعمل ها ، فرآیند های مربوط به انجام عملیاتی ایمن.

  • Part B. Aeroplane Operating Matters. This part comprises all type-related instructions and procedures needed for a safe operation. It takes account of any differences between types, variants or individual aeroplanes used by the operator.

بخش دوم : موارد مربوط به عملیات هواپیما این بخش مربوط به مواردی است که به تایپ پرنده در راستای ایجاد پرواز ایمن مرتبط می باشد. 

  • Part C. Route and Aerodrome Instructions and Information. This part comprises all instructions and information needed for the area of operation.

بخش سوم : دستورالعمل و اطلاعات  مسیر ها و فرودگاه ها

  • Part D. Training. This part comprises all training instructions for personnel required for a safe operation.

بخش چهارم : آموزشاین بخش شامل تمام دستورالعمل  های مربوط به پرسنل در جهت انجام پرواز مطمئن می باشد.

Subsidiary Documentation

For ease of use, most operators create subsidiary documents, in particular a Quick Reference Handbook (QRH) or Emergency and Abnormal Checklist (EAC), copies of which are provided on every flight deck for the personal use of each member of the operating flight crew.

جهت تسهیل در دسترسی به موارد موجود در OM نسخه هایی خلاصه تر و با دسترسی سریع تر موجود می باشد : QRH و EAC

Amendment of the Operations Manual

اصلاحیه مربوط به OM

Amendment of the Operations Manual – in hard copy and electronic format – is the responsibility of the Operator who has issued it. 

اصلاحیه OM  در نسخه های دیجیتال و چاپی بر عهده شخصی است که آن را تایید نموده است ( اپراتور – مدیر عامل و …)

This is an important function of the flight operations department and must be carefully controlled to ensure that all officially issued and controlled copies of a Manual and any subsidiary documents (including copies of parts of the OM) are updated as part of the same action. 

اطمینان از اینکه تمام نسخه های کپی نیز اصلاح گردد.

It is normal for there to be a formal channel available which can be used to issue urgent individual changes to all holders of a Manual or a dependent document rapidly and for the full document text to be re-issued incorporating any individual changes issued since the previous edition at prescribed intervals of not greater than a calendar year.




ICAO Requirements for Extended Range Twin-engine Operations (ETOPS) have been in place since 1985, when they were introduced to apply an overall level of operational safety for twin-engined aeroplanes which was consistent with that of the modern three and four-engined aeroplanes then flying, to which no restrictions were applied.

 عملیات با هواپیماهای دوموتوره  از سال ۱۹۸۵ در جریان بوده است.

 As aeroplane reliability and range improved, it became clear that all multi turbine-engined aircraft were pushing the boundaries of flight away from nearby alternates to increasingly distant ones and a review of the existing arrangements for ETOPS began.

با بهبود و ارتقاع ایمنی پرواز ها  و با افزایش قابلیت هواپیما ها در پیمودن مسیر های طولانی تر ، زمزمه هایی در جهت تغییر 


شروع شد.

After many years of discussion about how to broaden the facilitation of international flights for all large transport aeroplanes which necessitated tracks with no close-by diversion aerodromes (or could be more efficiently routed with the use of these tracks), led in 2012 to changes to ICAO Annex 6 Part 1 under Amendment 36.

پس از بحث و تبادل نظر های بسیار در مورد ارتقاع امکانات پرواز های بین المللی ، برای تمام هواپیماهای بزرگ پیکر ، در سال ۲۰۱۲  تغییر انکس ۶ ایکائو در این راستا اعمال گردید.

 This introduced the Extended Diversion Time Operations (EDTO)regime in place of ETOPS.

آنچه در پاراگراف های بالا توضیح داده شده است مربوط به جایگزینی سیستم  EDTO به جای ETOPS   می باشد.

However since then, although the EDTO regime has been widely accepted, the term EDTO has not been universally adopted the continued use of ETOPS is explicitly allowed for in Annex 6 provided that EDTO concepts “are correctly embodied in the concerned regulation or documentation”. 

هر چند سیستم EDTO به طور گستره فراگیر شده است اما اصطلاح EDTO به طور جهانی مورد پذیرش قرار نگرفته است.

Given this flexibility, the term ‘ETOPS’ has been retained by the FAA and others by redefining it as an abbreviation for ‘ExTended range OPerationS’ rather than as previously ‘Extended range Twin OPerationS’. 

عبارت ETOPS  توسط سازمان فدرال FAA انتخاب شده است و …

EASA currently continues to use ETOPS as originally defined and the abbreviation ‘LROPS’ (Long Range OPerationS) for extended range operation by three and four-engined aircraft.

آژانس ایمنی هوانوردی اروپا (EASA) همچنان از ETOPS  در داکیومنت ها استفاده می نماید و همچنین از اصطلاح  LROPS برای (عملیات های با فاصله زیاد) برای اشاره به هواپیماها و عملات های با هواپیماهای ۳ و ۴ موتوره استفاده می نماید.

The new ICAO guidance

Annex 6, and particularly Attachment D to that Annex, now contains guidance on extended range operations for all turbine-engined aeroplanes which are conducted beyond 60 minutes from a point where it is possible to fly to an en-route alternate aerodrome

انکس ۶ و بویژه ضمیمه D مربوط به این انکس ، شامل راهنمایی های مربوط به عملیات های نوع  Extended Range  و برای تمام هواپیماهای موتور توربینی  که زمان پرواز آنها از نقطه شروع تا فرودگاه جایگزین بیش از ۶۰ دقیقه باشد.

The main change is that a distinction is drawn between such operations which do not exceed an established ‘Threshold Time’ defined as “the  range,  expressed in  time, established  by  the  State  of  the  Operator  to  an  en-route alternate aerodrome, whereby any time beyond it requires an EDTO approval from that State”. 

تغییر اصلی در این است که …؟؟؟…

ICAO uses the flying time at the one engine out speed in ISA and Still Air to convert Threshold Time to distance for aeroplanes with two engines but the all engines operating speed in ISA and Still Air for the same conversion for aeroplanes with more than two engines.

 However, note that the FAA uses the one engine out speed as the basis for all aeroplane type EDTO approvals.

سازمان فدرال FAA سرعت مربوط به یک موتور را به عنوان مبنای محاسبات مربوط به هواپیماهای با مجوز EDTO  در نظر میگیرد.

Non-EDTO flights are expected, without any detailed specification, to be subject to flight planning principles which are additional to those for ‘normal’ operations in respect of:

پرواز های Non-EDTO   به پرواز هایی گفته می شود که …؟؟؟ 

  • Operational control and dispatch procedures
  •  کنترل عملیات و فرایند دیسپچ
  • The identification of alternate aerodromes
  • مشخصات فرودگاه جایگزین 
  • The provision of comprehensive and current information on aerodromes to be used as alternates
  • ؟؟؟
  • The assurance to the extent possible for twin-engined aeroplanes only that an aerodrome will be available if its use as an alternate becomes necessary
  • ؟؟؟
  • The inclusion of appropriate content in relevant personnel training programmes.

EDTO flights are subject to a process of explicit approval which, as with the former Extended Range Twin Operations system, has both aeroplane type design and aeroplane operational requirements. 

الزام وجود دو شرط 

نوع (تایپ)  هواپیما و

 الزامات عملیاتی هواپیما

System Safety in EDTO Extended Range Operations is based, as it was in the case of the original ETOPS concept, on two fundamental principles:

امنیت سیستم در EDTO (همان گونه که در ETOPS نیز چنین بود) بر دو اصل استوار است:

  • Precluding the need for an en-route diversion by designing reliable aeroplane engines and critical systems and then implementing specific maintenance precautions prior to dispatch.
  • پیشگیری از نیاز به تغییرات (انحرافات) در مسیر ، با طراحی  موتور های قابل اعتماد هواپیما و سیستمهای بحرانی و سپس بکار گیری پیشگیری ها (تمهیدات مهندسی و تعمیر و نگهداری) قبل از دیسپچ. ؟؟؟
  • Protecting any en-route diversion which might become necessary by implementing, at the design level, system reliability which is able to facilitate a safe diversion and then having operational systems in place which will ensure that aeroplane management during a diversion secures the completion of such a diversion.
  • ؟؟؟

These principles are satisfied as previously by:

موارد ذکر شده فوق رعایت می شود همانگونه که در گذشته رعایت میگردید :

  • An Aeroplane Type Design Assessment of the airframe/engine combination to ensure that the likely continued airworthiness of an aircraft used in such operation is compatible with the extended range operations which it is permitted to fly.
  • ارزیابی طراحی هواپیما (در بخش بدنه و موتور) باید این اطمینان را حاصل نماید که مداومت صلاحیت پروازی هواپیمای مورد استفاده در چنین عملیات هایی ، مطابق با عملیات های پرواز های طولانی (Extended Range ) می باشد.
  •  This must be approved/validated by the Type Design Authority.
  • مورد ذکر شده فوق  بایستی توسط مرجع صلاحیت دار (Type Design Authority ) مورد تایید قرار گیرد.
  • An Operational Safety Approval for each airline which wishes to use aeroplanes they operate on EDTO to ensure that the way in which those operations are conducted is appropriate. This is issued by the State of the Operator. 
  • مجوز عملیات ایمن  در هر ایرلاین که تمایل داردهواپیماهای عملیاتی آن  در EDTO استفاده گردد ، این اطمینان را می دهد که نحوه انجام عملیات مربوط به EDTO مناسب باشد. و این مجوز توسط سازمان هواپیمایی کشوری به تایید می رسد.
  • Although the first of these principles is founded on the reliability of the aeroplane engines, other considerations such as cargo compartment fire suppression and/or containment capability are also important as are the reliability / redundancy associated with systems other than those directly related to propulsion such as the integrity / reliability of the pressurisation system. 


  • The second principle requires the existence of an operational process which manages the risk involved in EDTO so that it is no greater than the risk of any other flight.

Maximum Diversion Time under EDTO

Each EDTO Type Design or Operational Approval introduces the concept of Maximum Diversion Time so that an approved authorised area of operations can be defined. 


Type Design requirements have been amplified so that when the Maximum Diversion Time exceeds 180 minutes at one engine out speed in ISA and Still Air, the world fleet In-Flight Shut Down (IFSD) rate for the specific airframe/powerplant combination must be less than 0.01/1000 hours and the capability of time-limited systems, in particular the cargo fire suppression system relative to a maximum diversion at the All Engines Operating speed.

ICAO Annex 6 directs that unless a corresponding specific approval has been granted by the State of the Operator, an aeroplane with two or more turbine engines may not be operated on a route where the diversion time to an en-route alternate aerodrome from any point on the route, calculated in ISA and Still Air conditions at the One-Engine-Inoperative cruise speed for aeroplanes with two turbine engines and at the All Engines Operating cruise speed for aeroplanes with more than two turbine engines, exceeds a threshold time established for such operations by that State.

EDTO Type Design Assessment

This must include:

  • demonstration that the airframe/engine combination is designed to fail-safe (CS-25/FAR Part 25) criteria and documentation of the effects of operation with a failed engine.
  • validation of an appropriate fuel management system, independent AC electrical power sources and satisfactory cargo fire protection and equipment cooling systems.
  • an analysis of the consequences of system/component failure.
  • the identification of time-limited systems – typically that for cargo fire suppression.
  •  the in-service experience (world fleet)


  • a manufacturer validation flight test

The submission to the Type Design Authority must be in the form of an ‘EDTO-Configuration,  Maintenance  and Procedures (CMP)  Document’  which must contain “the particular  aeroplane  configuration minimum requirements, 

including any special inspection,

hardware life  limits,

MMEL constraints  and  maintenance practices found  necessary to  establish  the  suitability  of  an  airframe-engine combination for EDTO”. 

Whilst each derivative of an aeroplane type variant requires explicit approval, Type Design Approval does not depend on in-service experience and recently-introduced aeroplane types have achieved EDTO qualification prior to initial entry into service.

The EDTO Operational Approval Process

An applicant for EDTO Operational Approval must apply in the manner specified by the State of the Operator.

در خواست مجوز EDTO به سبکی که سازمان هواپیمایی کشوری تعیین کرده است.

The type of approval process which is then followed will depend on whether the applicant has direct in-service experience with the candidate aircraft, for example one year of non-EDTO operations for a 120 minute twin engine approval or one year of 120 minutes EDTO operations for a 180 minute twin engine approval, or not. 

With such experience, the ‘In-service’ (formerly called ‘Conventional)’ track is followed to develop a simplified Approval Plan but if an applicant is unable to demonstrate such prior experience then the longer ‘Accelerated EDTO’ approval track will apply.

Any applicant will be expected to:

  • Define the EDTO routes that will be covered by application.

تعیین مسیرهایی که متقاضی EDTO  تمایل دارد در آن مسیر ها حرکت نماید.

  • For the aeroplane type to be used, establish EDTO maintenance procedures (including but not limited to appropriate engine condition, IFSD and oil consumption monitoring and validation of APU start reliability).

توجه به تعمیر و نگهداری ویژه مربوط به EDTO  و نیز پایش مصرف سوخت و IFSD و نیز ارزیابی مربوط به APU .

  • For each proposed route, establish a list of adequate en-route alternate airports (requirements include but are not limited to the availability of at least one approach aid and a minimum [and Fire Fighting Category] of 4.
  • Determine the EDTO diversion time required and the EDTO engine inoperative planning speed.
  • Establish the required EDTO Area of Operations.
  • Establish a system for obtaining EDTO flight plan data i.e. EDTO en-route alternates, equal time points, the critical fuel scenario and time limited systems.

وجود سیستمی برای در یافت اطلاعات پلن پروازی EDTO مانند  فرودگاه جایگزین و …

  • Make arrangements to obtain weather data for EDTO en-route alternates.
  • Ensure there is a reliable method of communication between the aeroplane and the airline during the flight.

اطمینان از وجود راه های ارتباطی مناسب و قابل اطمینان بین ایرلاین و هواپیما

  • Review the EDTO provisions in the approved MMEL in order to establish the airline MEL for EDTO.
  • Establish a method of checking the in-flight start reliability of the APU.

اینکه APU با اطمینان در طول پرواز قابل روشن شدن باشد.

  • Designate an EDTO Check Pilot.
  • Establish and fully document airline operating procedures for EDTO in EDTO Procedures Manuals for both Flight Operations and Maintenance processes.
  • Expand normal flight crew and aeroplane maintenance guidance material to include EDTO practices and procedures.
  • Establish appropriate EDTO training procedures for line maintenance and flight operations ground staff and for flight crew.

Before issuing an EDTO approval, a State must normally ensure that the maximum diversion time for the operator of a particular aeroplane type does not exceed the most limiting EDTO-significant-system time limitation which is relevant to that particular operation and identified in the AFM (directly or by reference) is not exceeded and, in the case of aeroplanes with two turbine engines only, that the aeroplane type involved is EDTO certified. 

However, if a specific safety risk assessment conducted by the aeroplane operator has demonstrated to the satisfaction of the State that an equivalent level of safety can be maintained during operations beyond the time limits of the most time-limited system, then there is discretion to approve such an operation. The specific safety risk assessment required to allow this exceptional EDTO approval to be granted must:

شرایط لازم جهت اخذ مجوز EDTO  : 

  • describe the capabilities of the operator
  • provide data which demonstrates the overall reliability of the aeroplane
  • assess the reliability of each time-limited system
  • provide relevant information from the aeroplane manufacturer
  • detail any specific mitigation  (کاهش دادن)  measures

A representation of the EDTO regulatory regime (Source ICAO)

Any EDTO approval issued by a State must also reference the need for compliance with the EDTO critical fuel scenario established by the State and any flight conducted under an EDTO approval must not continue beyond the specified Threshold Time until the identified alternates have been re-evaluated for their continued availability and current information indicates that, during the period of time when their use might be required, the prevailing conditions at those aerodromes will not be less than the applicable aerodrome operating minima.

 If this is not the case, then an alternative course of action, which does not involve exceeding the applicable Threshold Time must be determined.

Approvals for aeroplanes with two turbine engines are also required to take into account the following when determining if such an approval will provide the overall level of safety for any flight intended by the provisions of ICAO Annex 8 in respect of:

سه شرط مهم زیر :

  • the reliability of the propulsion system
  • the airworthiness certification of the aeroplane type
  • the EDTO-specific maintenance programme

Continuing Surveillance of EDTO-relevant operating experience

The continued applicability of EDTO approvals depends on the reporting of any EDTO Relevant Event – defined as “any system malfunction, degradation or other in-flight event that requires the crew to make a decision whether to turn back, divert or continue under an increased level of alertness”. 

It is understood that the majority of these events occur because of non-technical circumstances such as

مواردی که ممکن است در روند پرواز EDTO خلل ایجاد نماید : 

  adverse weather, 

passenger medical issues,

 flight or ground personnel error 

and bird strikes. 

However, awareness of technical events allows oversight of continued airworthiness by both aeroplane manufacturers and their primary certifying authorities so that any necessary corrective actions can be and are promptly identified and implemented.

ETOPS Grandfather Rights

ICAO SARPs include a specific Recommendation that State ETOPS approvals issued prior to 25 March 1986 which permitted operations beyond the Threshold Time since established for such operations “should give consideration to permitting such an operation to continue on that route after that date”.




در مورد AIP

An Aeronautical Information Publication (AIP) is a publication issued by or with the authority of a State and containing aeronautical information of a lasting character essential to air navigation. (ICAO Annex 15 – Aeronautical Information Services)

نشریه اطلاعات هوانوردی که توسط سازمان هواپیمایی کشوری یک کشور منتشر میشود و شامل مواردی است که برای ناوبری ضروری می باشد.

The AIP contains details of regulations, procedures and other information pertinent to the operation of aircraft in the particular country to which it relates. 

این نشریه به شرح جزئیات قوانین می پردازد ونیز جزئیات پروسه ها و اطلاعات مربوط به عملیات هواپیما در یک کشور خاص.

It is usually issued by or on behalf of the respective civil aviation administration and constitutes the basic information source for permanent information and long duration temporary changes.

The structure and contents of the document are standardised by international agreement through ICAO. AIPs

ساختار مربوطه به این نشریه طی یک توافق بین المللی به طور یکسان و مشابه در نظر گرفته شده است.

 normally have three parts –

 GEN (general), ENR (en route) and AD (aerodromes). 

معمولا دارای سه بخش می باشد.

عمومی – در مسیر – – فرودگاه ها

The documents contain many charts; most of these are in the AD section where details and charts of all public aerodromes are published.

این داکیومنت ها شامل چارت های زیادی می باشدکه بیشتر آنها در بخش فرودگاه ها وجود دارند. که اطلاعات مربوط به فرودگا هها در آن ذکر می گردد.

Full details regarding AIPs are contained in ICAO Annex 15 (AIS), Chapter 4.

اطلاعات کامل مربوط به این نشریه در انکس ۱۵ قوانین ایکائو موجود می باشد.

AIPs are kept up-to-date by regular revision on a fixed cycle. For operationally significant changes in information, the cycle known as the AIRAC (Aeronautical Information And Control) cycle is used: 

این نشریه بایستی به صورت منظم به روز رسانی گردد.

برای تغییرات مهم مربوط به عملیات اصطلاح


به کار گرفته می شود.

revisions (normally 1 per 28 days) are produced every 56 days (double AIRAC cycle) or every 28 days (single AIRAC cycle).

این تغییرات هر ۲۸ روز یکبار به روز رسانی می شود.که به هر دوره ۲۸ روزه آن 

Single AIRAC

 می گویند.

 These changes are received well in advance so that users of the aeronautical data can make necessary amendments, 

for example, updating standard routes and flight management systems (FMS)

نمونه ای از این بروز رسانی تغییرات عملا در سیستم مدیریت کنترل پرواز یا 


رخ می دهد.

AIPs are cumbersome documents, not usually intended to be used in the air. Commercial organisations make relevant extracts to form flight information publications (FLIPs) of convenient size to be used on aircraft.

این نشریه ها معمولا به قدری حجیم و سنگین هستند که برای استفاده در پرواز مناسب نمی باشند و سازمان های تجاری اقدام به تهیه نسخه های سبک تر و مناسب تر برای استفاده در پرواز می نمایند.



Minimum Navigation Performance Specifications (MNPS)

حد اقل تجهیزات ناوبری اختصاص یافته

In certain geographical areas (e.g. the North Atlantic, the northern portion of Canada) it is a requirement that aircraft carry navigational equipment which permits an enhanced degree of accuracy, 

در مناطق جغرافیایی خاص برای مثال آنتالتیک شمالی یا نواحی شمالی کانادا استفاده نوع خاصی از تجهیزات که دقت ناوبری را افزایش می دهد ، جزء الزامات می باشد

especially as regards tracking. To this end, equipment redundancy (two independent long range navigation systems) may be legislated to provide for the failure case.

در صورت ایجاد یک مشکل در یکی از سیستم ها ، سیستم دوم به نوان جایگزین یا  بک آپ مورد استفاده قرار خواهد گرفت.

The prescribed minimum navigation performance specifications (MNPS) and the procedures governing their application are published in the Regional Supplementary Procedures (ICAO Doc 7030) as well as in national AIPs.

.قوانین مربوط به سیستم فوق در داکیومنت ۷۰۳۰ایکائو تشریح گردیده است.



  • Low visibility procedures(LVP) 
  • پروسه پرواز در حال دید کم
  • .
  • که به فرآیندی گفته می شود که به منظورانجام  عملیات ایمن در شرایطی که شرایط دید کمتر از استاندار سطح ۱ باشد، در یک فرودگاه به اجرا گذاشته می شود.
  • means procedures applied at an aerodrome for the purpose of ensuring safe operations during lower than standard category I, other than standard category II, category II and III approaches and low visibility take-offs. (IR-OPS Annex I)

Low visibility take-off (LVTO) means a take-off with an RVR lower than 400 m but not less than 75 m. (IR-OPS Annex I)

تیک آف یا برخاستن از زمین در شرایط دید کم

RVRزمانی که فاکتور 

 مربوط به فرودگاه کمتر از ۴۰۰ متر باشد.

Note that ICAO requires LVP for all departures below 550m RVR, not just LVTO

توجه داشته باشید که سازمان ایکائو تمام پرواز های با فکتور


کمتر از ۵۵۰ متر را ملزم به رعایت پروسه موسوم به 


می نماید.منبع 


تقاضای مجوز فعالیت

برای انجام هرگونه فعالیت در زیمنه هوانوردی می بایستی مجوز مربوطه از سازمان مربوطه تهیه گردد.با توجه  به این فرم (لینک از سایت سازمان هواپیمایی کشوری)  هر ایرلاین یا موسسه یا تشکیلات هوانوردی ک هفعالیتی در حوزه هواپیمایی دارد ، می بایست طبق فرم لینک شده بالا ، درخواست خود را در سازمان هواپیمایی کشوری ثبت نماید.در ابتدای این فرم گزینه های زیر موجود می باشند:

لنگر Initial Issue 

برای سازمان هایی که برای با اول اقدام به درخواست مجوز فعالیت می نمایند.


به معنای اصلاحیه و مربوط به زمانی است که نوع فعالیت یک مرکز در راستای تغییر باشد. 

Renewal of:

مربوط به زمانی است که یک سازمان قصد داشته باشد ، مجوز فعالیت خود را تمدید نماید.

 Air Operator Certificate /  

Operations Specifications

۱٫ Applicant Data:اطلاعات درخواست
 در این محل نام اپراتور ذکر می گردد.
 در این محل ادرس آپراتور ذکر می گردد.
Phone No / Fax No:
 شماره تماس
Principal Base of Operations
 محل اصلی ساختمان عملیات (مثلا سپهران در شیراز)
Principal Base Maintenance
 محل اصلی تشکیلات تعمیر و نگه داری

جدول دوم :

۲٫ Personnel Accepted/ to be approved by the CAO.IRIفهرست نفراتی که بایستی به تایید سازمان هواپیمایی کشوری برسد
Contact Number
Accountable Manager
 مدیر عامل شماره تلفن  
PH Flight Operations
 post holderمعاون عملیات  
PH Maintenance
 معاون تعمیر ونگهداری  
PH Quality Assurance
 تضمین کیفیت  
PH Ground Operations
 عملیات زمینی  
PH Training
PH Security
PH Safety
PH Dangerous Goods
 کالای خطرناک  
PH Cabin Crew
 کروی کابین  

جدول سوم:
اصطلاحات به کار رفته در جدول سوم به شرح زیر است:

Make, Model


(Diversion Time)

توضیحات تکمیلی : جهت کسب اطلاعات بیشتر در مورد هر یک از موارد زیر ، روی آن کلیک کنید.

Minimum Navigation Performance Specifications (MNPS)



سایر موارد به شرح زیر است :

PAX no

که PBN اصطلاح مربوط به ناوبری مدرن می باشد.( لینک)

اصطلاح PAX مربوط به تعداد مسافران (Passengers) می باشد. مثال :

۱۵۰ pax onboad

 یعنی در حال حاضر ۱۵۰ مسافر سوار شده اند.

مورد بعدی ذکر شده در جدول عبارت  Lease می باشد که اجاره ای بودن هواپیما را مشخص می کند. و دو گزینه yes  و  NO در جلوی آن ذکر گردیده است.

مورد بعدی طبق جدول زیر می باشد که نوع عملیات را مشخص می نماید که یا بار بری است یا  مسافر بری و در غیر این حالتها بایستی مشخص گردد (تفریحی ، آموزشی ، ورزشی و …)

Type(s) of Operations


Others (please specify)


در بخش بعدی جدول بایستی کد چهار رفتی مربوط به فرودگاه های مقصد مشخص گردد  و در صورت نیاز به توضیحات بیش میتوان در قسمت Remark  آن را ذکر کرد:

Destination Airports

(ICAO four letter designators)

جدول چهارم مربوط به مجوز های هواپیما می باشد :

Low Visibility Operations

Approach and Landing

Take off

مربوط به LVP که در این لینک تشریح گردید
 RVSMتوضیحات تکمیلیRVSM 
Dangerous Goods

مربوط به مجوز جابجایی کالای خطرناک
Electronic Flight Bag (EFB)

مربوط به کیف الکترونیک کروی خلبان
Cabin crew initial safety training

آموزش ایمنی کروی پرواز
Continuing Airworthiness

تداوم صلاحیت پروازی

بعد از این جدول ها بیانه تایید می باشد که بایستی توسط مدیر عامل امضا گردد :
Statement of Compliance:

I confirm that information in this application complies with the applicable CAO.IR regulations.

در ادامه سه ضمیمه وجود دارد که به ترتیب در مورد آنها صحبت خواهیم کرد:


Areas of Operation According to ICAO Doc 7030

مناطی که اپراتور قصد دارد در آن  فعالیت نماید :

Please specify the regions listed below, according to the airline operations:


 آفریقا و اقیانوس هند

CARIBBEAN (CAR)                





آسیا و خاور میانه


آمریکای شمالی


آتلانتیک شمالی


اقیانوس آرامSOUTH AMERICAN (SAM)آمریکای جنوبی
 ضمیمه دوم :


Application Guide and Requirement

 راهنمایی در مورد اصطلاحات بکار رفته در فرم درخواست 

  • Cover letter describing the intention such as initial, renewal or amendment
  • Principal base of operations: Attach contract with airport authority or handling agent
  • Principal base of maintenance: Attach contract with applicable AMO
  • PH: Post Holder, Personnel Accepted/ to be approved by the CAO.IRI
  • AC REG: Aircraft Registration
  • LVO: Low Visibility Operation , Attach supporting documents & training  records

جهت اثبات این مورد بایستی مدارک مربوطه و نیز مستندات آموزشی ارائه گردد.

  • EDTO: Extended Diversion Time Operation,  attach EDTO evaluation report

گزارش ارزیابی EDTO باید ضمیمه گردد (در صورتی که اپراتور مدعی بر انجام پرواز های EDTO باشد.)

  • MNPS: Minimum Navigation Performance Specification , submit MNPS supporting documents
  • RVSM: Reduced Vertical Separation Minima ,attach RVSM Height Monitoring Results
  • PBN: Performance Based Navigation , Attach supporting documents & Training Records
  • PAX No: No of passengers
  • Lease: Attach the relevant lease agreement
  • Electronic Flight Bag: Attach supporting documents
  • Remarks: Fill any other entry that does not cover or fill separate attachment

ضمیمه سوم :


Please attach last acceptance/approval of  following manuals

 اپراتور بایستی تاییدیه های مربوط به موارد زیر را ارائه نماید :

  • MEL
  • Cabin Crew Manual
  • GOM
  • CDL(If applicable)
  • Dispatch Manual
  • CAMO
  • SMS


 در این داکیومنت به تشریح موارد مربوط به صلاحیت پروازی پرداخته می شود.

بخش های تشکیل دهنده این داکیومنت به شرح زیر است :

sub part A : General

sub part B : Accountability

sub part C : Continious Airworthiness

sub part D :  maintenance Standards

sub part E : Components

sub part F : Maintenance Orgsnization

sub part G : CAMO

sub part H : CRS 

sub part I :Aiworthiness Review Certificate

SubPart-G از این داکیومنت مربوط به CAMO  می باشد.

– اگر یک اپراتور خود قادر به برقراری واحد CAMO  نباشد ، آن را به یک اپراتور یا مرکز معتبر و مورد تایید برون سپاری می کند.

منبع (لینک PDF)




Maintenance Organization Exposition 

in this document we can show how the organization intends to comply with Part-145

MOE شامل موارد زیر می باشد :

۱- بیانیه در ابتدای داکیومنت که توسط نفراتی مانند (مدیر تضمین کیفیت ، مدیر عامل ، معاون فنی و …) امضا می شود.

۲- نفرات nominated

۳- مسئولیت نفرات (مثلا شخصی به عنوان واسط بین اپراتور و سازمان)

۴- چارت سازمانی

۵- لیست نفرات certify staff , Support staff

۶- a general description of man power resource 

۷- facility

۸- Scope of work

۹- Change


۱۱-لیست اپراتورهایی که به آنها خدمات تعمیر و نگهداری داده می شود.

۱۲- لیست subcontractors

۱۳-لیست linestations

۱۴-Contracted Organizations